2010年8月18日星期三

How far have girls in politics come considering that 1920?

Ninety many years right after the 19th Amendment enshrined women¡¯s correct to political participation within the US Constitution, ladies may perhaps be having one of their most influential many years yet in American politics, analysts say.

The earliest 50 many years of American women¡¯s suffrage was ¡°votes without leverage,¡± based on a book of the same name by Anna Harvey, a political scientist at New York University. But women¡¯s leverage on politics is now stronger than ever, and it appears to be growing with every single successive election cycle.

At least 13 ladies, a record, will win a major party nomination for the US Senate this year, assuming three female incumbents ¨C Lisa Murkowski (R) of Alaska, Kirsten Gillibrand (D) of New York, and Barbara Mikulski (D) of Maryland ¨C overcome token primary opposition over the next month.

On the unelected side of things, you will discover three female justices on the Supreme Court, since Elena Kagan was sworn in. Speaker Nancy Pelosi is the very first woman to lead the House of Representatives. And America¡¯s secretary of State has been a woman for 10 with the past 14 many years, with Madeleine Albright, Condoleezza Rice, and Hillary Rodham Clinton all serving as the country¡¯s chief diplomat.

The adjustments reflect the modifications in the electorate. Far more women than men have voted in each presidential election because 1960. Four times since 1976, much more than 60 percent of females have voted in a presidential election; guys have topped the 60 percent turnout mark only once in that span, based on data from Rutgers University¡¯s Center for American Females and Politics.

Nonetheless, despite progress, a gap does remain between women¡¯s participation in mass politics and women¡¯s participation within the higher levels from the political game, says Jennifer Lawless, a political scientist at American University.

¡°Women turn out to vote in greater proportions than men, so girls can frequently be the decisive bloc in an election,¡± Ms. Lawless says. ¡°Still, we don¡¯t see women running for office nearly as much as adult males do.¡±

Still, in their collective effect on mass politics, women¡¯s political influence is high. Groups of girls are increasingly seen as the key to electoral victory for both parties.

Within the 1990s, the decisive bloc was ¡°soccer moms,¡± the growing class of suburban mothers whose primary concerns were education and the economy. Right after the 9/11 attacks, ¡°security moms¡± concerned about terrorism were courted by the two events and credited for fueling George W. Bush¡¯s victory in 2004, in which he got a increased percentage of women¡¯s votes than any Republican presidential candidate considering that his father.

Lawless says that each parties, and specially Democrats, now recognize that they need vigorous support from women to win elections. This evident within the way they present their platforms to the public. ¡°Women¡¯s issues¡± are not the focus, but the way women see the issues is.

¡°Both parties nowadays really try to frame problems in [women¡¯s] terms,¡± Lawless says. ¡°Security is framed as, 'How to keep the kids safe?' The economy is framed as, ¡®How do I put food about the table?¡¯ ¡®How do I pay for college?¡¯ ¡±

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